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Hadapi AEC 2015, Pengembangan Kualitas SDM Berbasis Kompetensi Perlu Dipacu
25 June 2013 10:26
Dalam beberapa tahun mendatang Indonesia dihadapkan pada persoalan yang sangat dinamis, baik di bidang politik maupun bidang ekonomi dan bidang usaha. Di tahun 2014, Indonesia akan dihadapkan pada pergantian para pembuat undang-undang di DPR dan Presiden. Selanjutnya pada tahun 2015 harus menghadapi berlakunya Asean Economic Community (AEC).
“Berbagai persiapan dari sekarang memang harus terus dipacu tanpa harus merasa cemas. Kita harapkan semua pihak bisa lebih optimis, rasional serta percaya diri dalam menghadapi AEC,” ungkap Ketua Umum Kadin Indonesia Suryo Bambang Sulisto dalam seminar Kesiapan Tenaga Kerja Menghadapi Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN 2015 di Jakarta, (25/6).

Dalam persiapannya, kata Suryo, permasalahan struktural dalam perekonomian harus segera terpecahkan. Pasalnya, selama ini ekonomi Indonesia  masih saja menghadapi kendala infrastruktur, ketersediaan energi, daya saing industri, penyediaan lahan,  birokrasi dan masih banyak masalah lain. Tak terkecuali dalam hal ketenagakerjaan yang menghadapi masalah rendahnya produktivitas tenaga kerja. “Sumber Daya Manusia yang kompeten harus disiapkan, karena masih banyak industri padat karya yang kekurangan tenaga kerja kompeten sehingga berpengaruh pada produktivitasnya, apalagi pada industri yang menggunakan teknologi tinggi” ungkap dia.

Menurut Suryo, tingkat produktivitas merupakan faktor penting dalam pertumbuhan perekonomian. Produktivitas dapat menjadi daya tarik investasi dan memperluas lapangan pekerjaan. “Produktivitas  juga tergantung juga pada penguasaan teknologi yang memerlukan kompetensi SDM yang lebih tinggi”.

Kadin mencatat, menurut prediksi berbagai lembaga penelitian, tenaga kerja di ASEAN akan mencapai sekitar 320 juta pada tahun 2015. Dengan  jumlah penduduk ASEAN dipredikasi mencapai lebih dari 600 juta pada tahun 2015, maka dari sisi supply ASEAN akan mampu mencukupi kebutuhan tenaga kerja.  Diperkirakan peningkatan jumlah tenaga kerja akan terjadi di negara-negara yang ekonominya masih lemah antara lain Filipina dan Kamboja.  Thailand, Singapura, Malaysia dan Brunei bahkan diperkirakan akan mengalami kekurangan tenaga kerja setelah tahun 2015.

“Dengan gambaran seperti itu, ternyata selain menciptakan ancaman, AEC juga membuka peluang usaha dan peluang pekerjaan. Oleh karena itu menjadi sangat penting bagi pemerintah dan semua pihak menyiapkan program-program jangka pendek guna meningkatkan produktivitas SDM,” ujar Suryo.

Menurut dia, program jangka pendek peningkatan produktivitas tersebut terutama perlu difokuskan pada kebijakan penguatan SDM pada sektor UMKM dan bukan hanya persiapan SDM sebagai buruh bagi usaha skala besar. “Melalui program penciptaan enterpreneurship di sektor UMKM, kita akan tetap menjadi tuan rumah bagi perekonomian Indonesia,” kata Suryo.

Seperti diketahui jumlah enterprenueur nasional hanya berjumlah 0,18%. Sementara untuk mendukung pertumbuhan ekonomi yang tinggi dan sustainable,  Indonesia memerlukan jumlah entepreneur sebesar lebih dari 2% atau sekitar 4 juta  orang.

Di tempat yang sama, Wakil Ketua Umum Kadin Bidang Tenaga Kerja Benny Soetrisno mengatakan, pelaksanaan sertifikasi kompetensi dalam rangka menghadapi Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN 2015 juga perlu diperhatikan. Pasalnya, salah satu elemen penting dalam Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN nanti adalah adanya arus bebas tenaga kerja terampil/profesional (free flow of skilled labor).  “Selain mengatasi tantangan yang timbul, kita juga harus mampu memanfaatkan peluang dengan meningkatkan daya saing tenaga kerja kita,” kata dia.

Benny menuturkan, sudah satu dekade ini pemerintah dan dunia usaha telah saling bahu membahu untuk meningkatkan kualitas tenaga kerja melalui pengembangan sistem diklat berbasis kompetensi.  Pengembangan sistem itu telah diinisiasi oleh Kadin Indonesia bersama dengan Kementerian Nakertrans, Kementerian Perindustrian dan Kementerian Dikbud pada awal tahun 2000 melalui penandatanganan MOU. Tim Lintas Sektor yang dibentuk sebagai tindak lanjut dari MOU tersebut  melahirkan konsepsi tentang Sistem Diklat Berbasis Kompetensi yang kemudian dituangkan dalam UU No.13 Tahun 2003.

“Dalam sistem diklat berbasis kompetensi terdapat tiga komponen yang saling berkaitan yaitu standar kompetensi, pelatihan berbasis kompetensi dan sertifikasi kompetensi,” ungkap Benny.

Menurut dia, Kadin Indonesia sebagai representasi dunia usaha sangat berkepentingan dengan penerapan dari sistem tersebut karena pihaknya menyakini bahwa melalui penerapan sistem tersebut dapat menghasilkan tenaga kerja yang kompeten sesuai kebutuhan dunia usaha.

Oleh karena itu, tambah Benny, Kadin Indonesia sangat mendorong dunia usaha melalui asosiasi-asosiasi industri untuk berpartisipasi aktif, khususnya dalam pengembangan standar kompetensi dan pembentukan Lembaga Sertifikasi Profesi (LSP). “Mulai tahun ini Kadin Indonesia bekerjasama dengan IHK-Jerman tengah melaksanakan program pengembangan pelatihan berbasis kompetensi khususnya untuk Kadin-Kadin Propinsi”.

Menurut Benny, percepatan penerapan sistem diklat berbasis kompetensi dapat menjadi solusi bagi kesiapan Indonesia menghadapi arus bebas tenaga kerja terampil (free flow of skilled labor) yang juga akan berlaku pada AEC 2015.


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